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1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony.After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the Socialist movement in Germany. German universities became world-class centers for science and the humanities, while music and the arts flourished.
The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government.Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific. By 1900, its rapidly expanding industrial economy passed Britain's, allowing a naval race and an aggressive foreign policy.Germany led the Central Powers in World War I (1914–1918) against France, Great Britain, Russia and (by 1917) the United States.Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as Polish areas and Alsace-Lorraine.The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) prevented annexation by the Roman Empire.
Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes.
When the Frankish Empire was divided among Charlemagne's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia.
In 962, Otto I became the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state.
In the High Middle Ages, the regional dukes, princes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors.
Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians.