Drug related morbidity and mortality updating the cost of illness
Drug related morbidity and mortality updating the cost of illness - www happiercouples seniordating com
The frequencies and costs of ADEs were quantified for a base case, building on an existing cost-of-illness model for ADEs. Sensitivity analyses based on values determined from a literature review were used to test the postulated results.
Health care costs related to ADEs in this base case totalled 816 million Euros, mean costs per case were 381 Euros.About 58% of costs resulted from hospitalisations, 11% from emergency department visits and 21% from long-term care.Base case estimates of frequency and costs of ADEs were lower than all estimates of the sensitivity analyses. treatment structure used remains to be determined for Germany.The postulated frequency and costs of ADEs illustrate the possible size of the health problems and economic burden related to ADEs in Germany. The sensitivity analysis used assumptions from different studies and thus further quantified the information gap in Germany regarding ADEs. However, all medications may have disadvantageous effects, which may be reported as drug related problems (DRPs) or adverse drug events (ADEs).Studies of DRPs report actual or potential problems which interfere with the desired health outcome, a spectrum ranging from adverse consequences (such as side effects) to lack of effectiveness .Similarly in Germany, antithrombotics, NSAIDs, insulin, salicylates, digoxin and calcium antagonists have been reported to account for 70% of the medications involved in drug-related hospitalisations , thus imposing a considerable burden on healthcare systems.
A review of the international literature regarding costs of ADEs from the hospital perspective reported that average hospital costs ranged from 904€ to 5,783€ per ADE with both the lowest and highest values reported in the USA .
However, these calculations did not consider outpatient treatment costs of ADEs.
Costs associated with drug-related mortality and morbidity in ambulatory care have been estimated using a probability-pathway model for the USA .
The model is based on probabilities of resource use estimated by clinical experts for the US healthcare system.
It identifies and structures the possible resource use related to adverse drug events occurring in the ambulatory setting.
Estimates of costs associated with drug-related morbidity and mortality exceeded 7.4 billion US dollars for the year 2000, with hospital admissions accounting for nearly 70% of total costs.