Read double your dating pdf
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I am humbled and honored to serve Idahoans as Superintendent of Public Instruction. With nearly 20 years of experience in all phases of education — from classroom teacher, …DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.
The two DNA strands are termed polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases—either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T)—and a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group.
The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone.
The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together (according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G) with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.
The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 10 DNA stores biological information.
The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information.
This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate.
A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.
The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel.
Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases).
It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information.